Theranostics 2019; 9(9):2694-2711. doi:10.7150/thno.31801

Research Paper

Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth as an alternative cell source in bio-root regeneration

Xueting Yang1,2,3,4, Yue Ma1,2,3,4, Weihua Guo1,2,3,5, Bo Yang1,2,3,4,✉, Weidong Tian1,2,3,4,✉

1. State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, PR China
2. National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, PR China
3. National Engineering Laboratory for Oral Regenerative Medicine, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, PR China
4. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, PR China
5. Department of Pedodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, PR China

Abstract

A stem cell-mediated bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) has proven to be a prospective tool for the treatment of tooth loss. As shown in our previous studies, dental follicle cells (DFCs) are suitable seeding cells for the construction of bio-roots. However, the DFCs which can only be obtained from unerupted tooth germ are restricted. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), which are harvested much more easily through a minimally invasive procedure, may be used as an alternative seeding cell. In this case, we compared the odontogenic characteristics of DFCs and SHEDs in bio-root regeneration.

Methods: The biological characteristics of SHEDs and DFCs were determined in vitro. The cells were then induced to secrete abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) and form macroscopic cell sheets. We combined the cell sheets with treated dentin matrix (TDM) for subcutaneous transplantation into nude mice and orthotopic jaw bone implantation in Sprague-Dawley rats to further verify their regenerative potential.

Results: DFCs exhibited a higher proliferation rate and stronger osteogenesis and adipogenesis capacities, while SHEDs displayed increased migration ability and excellent neurogenic potential. Both dental follicle cell sheets (DFCSs) and sheets of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDSs) expressed not only ECM proteins but also osteogenic and odontogenic proteins. Importantly, similar to DFCSs/TDM, SHEDSs/TDM also successfully achieved the in vivo regeneration of the periodontal tissues, which consist of periodontal ligament fibers, blood vessels and new born alveolar bone.

Conclusions: Both SHEDs and DFCs possessed a similar odontogenic differentiation capacity in vivo, and SHEDs were regarded as a prospective seeding cell for use in bio-root regeneration in the future.

Keywords: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, Dental follicle cell, Cell sheet, Treated dentin matrix, Bio-root, Periodontal regeneration

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How to cite this article:
Yang X, Ma Y, Guo W, Yang B, Tian W. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth as an alternative cell source in bio-root regeneration. Theranostics 2019; 9(9):2694-2711. doi:10.7150/thno.31801. Available from http://www.thno.org/v09p2694.htm