Theranostics 2017; 7(9):2463-2476. doi:10.7150/thno.18922

Research Paper

Ultrasonographic Imaging and Anti-inflammatory Therapy of Muscle and Tendon Injuries Using Polymer Nanoparticles

Gi-Wook Kim1, 2, 4*, Changsun Kang3*, Young-Bin Oh1,2, Myoung-Hwan Ko1, 2, 4, Jeong-Hwan Seo1, 2, 4✉, Dongwon Lee3, 5✉

1. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonbuk, 561-756, Republic of Korea;
2. Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University- Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Chonbuk, 561-756, Republic of Korea;
3. Department of BIN Convergence Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk, 561-756, Republic of Korea;
4. Translational Research & Clinical Trial Center for Medical Device, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Chonbuk, 561-756, Republic of Korea;
5. Department of Polymer•Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk, 561-756, Republic of Korea.
* These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Ultrasonography is a reliable diagnostic modality for muscle and tendon injuries, but it has been challenging to find right diagnosis of minor musculoskeletal injuries by conventional ultrasonographic imaging. A large amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are known to be generated during tissue damages such as mechanical injury and therefore H2O2 holds great potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker for mechanical injuries in the musculoskeletal system. We previously developed poly(vanillyl alcohol-co-oxalate) (PVAX), which rapidly scavenges H2O2 and exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in H2O2-associated diseases. Based on the notion that PVAX nanoparticles generate CO2 bubbles through H2O2-triggered hydrolysis, we postulated that PVAX nanoparticles could serve as ultrasonographic contrast agents and therapeutic agents for musculoskeletal injuries associated with overproduction of H2O2. In the agarose gel phantom study, PVAX nanoparticles continuously generated CO2 bubbles to enhance ultrasonographic echogenicity significantly. Contusion injury significantly elevated the level of H2O2 in skeletal muscles and Achilles tendons. Upon intramuscular injection, PVAX nanoparticles significantly elevated the ultrasound contrast and suppressed inflammation and apoptosis in the contusion injury of musculoskeletal systems. We anticipate that PVAX nanoparticles hold great translational potential as theranostic agents for musculoskeletal injuries.

Keywords: Ultrasonography, Musculoskeletal injury, Polymer nanoparticles, Hydrogen peroxide, CO2 Bubbles.

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How to cite this article:
Kim GW, Kang C, Oh YB, Ko MH, Seo JH, Lee D. Ultrasonographic Imaging and Anti-inflammatory Therapy of Muscle and Tendon Injuries Using Polymer Nanoparticles. Theranostics 2017; 7(9):2463-2476. doi:10.7150/thno.18922. Available from http://www.thno.org/v07p2463.htm