Theranostics 2018; 8(13):3559-3570. doi:10.7150/thno.24762

Review

Noninvasive imaging of the PD-1:PD-L1 immune checkpoint: Embracing nuclear medicine for the benefit of personalized immunotherapy

Katrijn Broos1, Quentin Lecocq1, Geert Raes2,3, Nick Devoogdt4, Marleen Keyaerts4,5✉, Karine Breckpot1✉

1. Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy (LMCT), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels
2. Unit of Cellular and Molecular Immunology (CMIM), VUB, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels
3. Myeloid Cell Immunology Lab, VIB Inflammation Research Center, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium
4. In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging Laboratory (ICMI), VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels
5. Nuclear Medicine Department, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, B-1090 Brussels

Abstract

Molecular imaging of the immune checkpoint receptor PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 is increasingly investigated as a strategy to guide and monitor PD-1:PD-L1-targeted immune checkpoint therapy. We provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art on PD-1- and PD-L1-specific imaging agents for quantitative, real-time assessment of PD-1:PD-L1 expression in the tumor environment and discuss their potential for clinical translation.

Keywords: PD-1:PD-L1, biomarker, molecular imaging, immunotherapy

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
How to cite this article:
Broos K, Lecocq Q, Raes G, Devoogdt N, Keyaerts M, Breckpot K. Noninvasive imaging of the PD-1:PD-L1 immune checkpoint: Embracing nuclear medicine for the benefit of personalized immunotherapy. Theranostics 2018; 8(13):3559-3570. doi:10.7150/thno.24762. Available from http://www.thno.org/v08p3559.htm