Theranostics 2011; 1:322-340. doi:10.7150/thno/v01p0322

Research Paper

Evaluation of 111In-Labeled Cyclic RGD Peptides: Effects of Peptide and Linker Multiplicity on Their Tumor Uptake, Excretion Kinetics and Metabolic Stability

Jiyun Shi1,2, Yang Zhou1, Sudipta Chakraborty1, Young-Seung Kim1, Bing Jia2, Fan Wang2, Shuang Liu1✉

1. School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, IN 47907, USA
2. Medical Isotopes Research Center, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.
Citation:
Shi J, Zhou Y, Chakraborty S, Kim YS, Jia B, Wang F, Liu S. Evaluation of 111In-Labeled Cyclic RGD Peptides: Effects of Peptide and Linker Multiplicity on Their Tumor Uptake, Excretion Kinetics and Metabolic Stability. Theranostics 2011; 1:322-340. doi:10.7150/thno/v01p0322. Available from http://www.thno.org/v01p0322.htm

File import instruction

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the valence of cyclic RGD peptides, P-RGD (PEG4-c(RGDfK): PEG4 = 15-amino-4,710,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid), P-RGD2 (PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2, 2P-RGD4 (E{PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2}2, 2P4G-RGD4 (E{PEG4-E[G3-c(RGDfK)]2}2: G3 = Gly-Gly-Gly) and 6P-RGD4 (E{PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2}2) in binding to integrin αvβ3, and to assess the impact of peptide and linker multiplicity on biodistribution properties, excretion kinetics and metabolic stability of their corresponding 111In radiotracers.

Methods: Five new RGD peptide conjugates (DOTA-P-RGD (DOTA =1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetracetic acid), DOTA-P-RGD2, DOTA-2P-RGD4, DOTA-2P4G-RGD4, DOTA-6P-RGD4), and their 111In complexes were prepared. The integrin αvβ3 binding affinity of cyclic RGD conjugates were determined by a competitive displacement assay against 125I-c(RGDyK) bound to U87MG human glioma cells. Biodistribution, planar imaging and metabolism studies were performed in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG human glioma xenografts.

Results: The integrin αvβ3 binding affinity of RGD conjugates follows the order of: DOTA-6P-RGD4 (IC50 = 0.3 ± 0.1 nM) ~ DOTA-2P4G-RGD4 (IC50 = 0.2 ± 0.1 nM) ~ DOTA-2P-RGD4 (IC50 = 0.5 ± 0.1 nM) > DOTA-3P-RGD2 (DOTA-PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2: IC50 = 1.5 ± 0.2 nM) > DOTA-P-RGD2 (IC50 = 5.0 ± 1.0 nM) >> DOTA-P-RGD (IC50 = 44.3 ± 3.5 nM) ~ c(RGDfK) (IC50 = 49.9 ± 5.5 nM) >> DOTA-6P-RGK4 (IC50 = 437 ± 35 nM). The fact that DOTA-6P-RGK4 had much lower integrin αvβ3 binding affinity than DOTA-6P-RGD4 suggests that the binding of DOTA-6P-RGD4 to integrin αvβ3 is RGD-specific. This conclusion is consistent with the lower tumor uptake for 111In(DOTA-6P-RGK4) than that for 111In(DOTA-6P-RGD4). It was also found that the G3 and PEG4 linkers between RGD motifs have a significant impact on the integrin αvβ3-targeting capability, biodistribution characteristics, excretion kinetics and metabolic stability of 111In-labeled cyclic RGD peptides.

Conclusion: On the basis of their integrin αvβ3 binding affinity and tumor uptake of their corresponding 111In radiotracers, it was conclude that 2P-RGD4, 2P4G-RGD4 and 6P-RGD4 are most likely bivalent in binding to integrin αvβ3, and extra RGD motifs might contribute to the long tumor retention times of 111In(DOTA-2P-RGD4), 111In(DOTA-2P4G-RGD4) and 111In(DOTA-6P-RGD4) than that of 111In(DOTA-3P-RGD3) at 72 h p.i. Among the 111In-labeled cyclic RGD tetramers evaluated in the glioma model, 111In(DOTA-2P4G-RGD4) has very high tumor uptake with the best tumor/kidney and tumor/liver ratios, suggesting that 90Y(DOTA-2P4G-RGD4) and 177Lu(DOTA-2P4G-RGD4) might have the potential for targeted radiotherapy of integrin αvβ3-positive tumors.

Keywords: integrin αvβ3, 111In-labeled cyclic RGD peptides, tumor imaging