Theranostics 2013; 3(6):437-447. doi:10.7150/thno.5658


Real Time Dynamic Imaging and Current Targeted Therapies in the War on Cancer: A New Paradigm

Ramasamy Paulmurugan1,✉, Bryan Oronsky2, Chad F Brouse3, Tony Reid4, Susan Knox5, Jan Scicinski2,✉

1. Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 1501 South California Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304.
2. RadioRx, Inc, 800 W El Camino Real, Ste 180, Mountain View, CA 94040.
3. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390.
4. UCSD Moores Cancer Center, 3855 Health Sciences Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093.
5. Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, 269 Campus Dr, CCSR South 1245, Stanford, CA 94305.

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Paulmurugan R, Oronsky B, Brouse CF, Reid T, Knox S, Scicinski J. Real Time Dynamic Imaging and Current Targeted Therapies in the War on Cancer: A New Paradigm. Theranostics 2013; 3(6):437-447. doi:10.7150/thno.5658. Available from

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In biology, as every science student is made to learn, ontology recapitulates phylogeny. In medicine, however, oncology recapitulates polemology, the science of warfare: The medical establishment is transitioning from highly toxic poisons that kill rapidly dividing normal and malignant cells with little specificity to tailored therapies that target the tumors with the lethality of the therapeutic warhead. From the advent of the information age with the incorporation of high-tech intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance has resulted in "data fusion" where a wide range of information collected in near real-time can be used to redesign most of the treatment strategies currently used in the clinic. The medical community has begun to transition from the 'black box' of tumor therapy based solely on the clinical response to the 'glass box' of dynamic imaging designed to bring transparency to the clinical battlefield during treatment, thereby informing the therapeutic decision to 'retreat or repeat'. The tumor microenvironment is dynamic, constantly changing in response to therapeutic intervention, and therefore the therapeutic assessment must map to this variable and ever-changing landscape with dynamic and non-static imaging capabilities. The path to personalized medicine will require incorporation and integration of dynamic imaging at the bedside into clinical practice for real-time, interactive assessment of response to targeted therapies. The application of advanced real time imaging techniques along with current molecularly targeted anticancer therapies which alter cellular homeostasis and microenvironment can enhance therapeutic interventions in cancer patients and further improve the current status in clinical management of patients with advanced cancers.

Keywords: Cancer, microRNA, cancer therapy, imaging, drug delivery.