Theranostics 2013; 3(10):731-740. doi:10.7150/thno.5162


Proton Therapy Verification with PET Imaging

Xuping Zhu, Georges El Fakhri

Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, NMMI Division, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
Zhu X, Fakhri GE. Proton Therapy Verification with PET Imaging. Theranostics 2013; 3(10):731-740. doi:10.7150/thno.5162. Available from

File import instruction


Proton therapy is very sensitive to uncertainties introduced during treatment planning and dose delivery. PET imaging of proton induced positron emitter distributions is the only practical approach for in vivo, in situ verification of proton therapy. This article reviews the current status of proton therapy verification with PET imaging. The different data detecting systems (in-beam, in-room and off-line PET), calculation methods for the prediction of proton induced PET activity distributions, and approaches for data evaluation are discussed.

Keywords: proton therapy, proton range verification, PET imaging.