Theranostics 2015; 5(6):545-558. doi:10.7150/thno.10900 This issue


Radionuclide Imaging of Neurohormonal System of the Heart

Xinyu Chen1,2, Rudolf A. Werner1,2, Mehrbod S. Javadi3, Yoshifumi Maya1, Michael Decker4, Constantin Lapa1, Ken Herrmann1, Takahiro Higuchi1,2 ✉

1. Devision of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.
2. Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.
3. Devision of Nuclear Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA.
4. Institute of Pharmacy and Food Chemistry, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.

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Chen X, Werner RA, Javadi MS, Maya Y, Decker M, Lapa C, Herrmann K, Higuchi T. Radionuclide Imaging of Neurohormonal System of the Heart. Theranostics 2015; 5(6):545-558. doi:10.7150/thno.10900. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included.

Keywords: Heart failure, cardiac neurohormonal system, nuclear cardiology, SPECT, PET, radiotracer.