Theranostics 2015; 5(7):772-786. doi:10.7150/thno.10853

Research Paper

Analysis of the In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Photodynamic Therapy on Breast Cancer by Using a Sensitizer, Sinoporphyrin Sodium

Xiaobing Wang1,*, Jianmin Hu1,*, Pan Wang1, Shaoliang Zhang2, Yichen Liu1, Wenli Xiong1, Quanhong Liu1✉

1. Key Laboratory of Medicinal Resources and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Ministry of Education, National Engineering Laboratory for Resource Developing of Endangered Chinese Crude Drugs in Northwest of China, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.
2. Qinglong High-Tech Co., Ltd, Yichun, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China.
* The authors contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
Wang X, Hu J, Wang P, Zhang S, Liu Y, Xiong W, Liu Q. Analysis of the In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Photodynamic Therapy on Breast Cancer by Using a Sensitizer, Sinoporphyrin Sodium. Theranostics 2015; 5(7):772-786. doi:10.7150/thno.10853. Available from

File import instruction


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging theranostic modality for various cancers and diseases. Photosensitizers are critical components for PDT. Sinoporphyrin sodium, referred to as DVDMS, is a newly identified photosensitizer that was isolated from Photofrin. Here, we evaluated the effects of DVDMS-mediated PDT (DVDMS-PDT) on tumor cell proliferation and metastasis in the highly metastatic 4T1 cell line and a mouse xenograft model. DVDMS-PDT elicited a potent phototoxic effect in vitro, which was abolished using the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine. In addition, DVDMS-PDT effectively inhibited the migration of 4T1 cells in scratch wound-healing and transwell assays. Using an in vivo mouse model, DVDMS-PDT greatly prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice and inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis, consistent with in vitro findings. PDT with DVDMS had a greater anti-tumor efficacy than clinically used Photofrin. Moreover, preliminary toxicological results indicate that DVDMS is relatively safe. These results suggest that DVDMS is a promising sensitizer that warrants further development for use in cancer treatment with PDT or other sensitizing agent-based therapies.

Keywords: DVDMS, Photodynamic therapy, Proliferation, Metastasis, 4T1 cells.