Theranostics 2016; 6(13):2431-2438. doi:10.7150/thno.16307


Imaging Nanotherapeutics in Inflamed Vasculature by Intravital Microscopy

Zhenjia Wang

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Washington State University, Spokane, WA, USA

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Wang Z. Imaging Nanotherapeutics in Inflamed Vasculature by Intravital Microscopy. Theranostics 2016; 6(13):2431-2438. doi:10.7150/thno.16307. Available from

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Intravital microscopy (IVM) is the application of light microscopy to real time study biology of live animal tissues in intact and physiological conditions with the high spatial and temporal resolution. Advances in imaging systems, genetic animal models and imaging probes, IVM has offered quantitative and dynamic insight into cell biology, immunology, neurobiology and cancer. In this review, we will focus on the targeting of nanotherapeutics to inflamed vasculature. We will introduce the basic concept and principle of IVM and demonstrate that IVM is a powerful tool used to quantitatively determine the molecular mechanisms of interactions between nanotherapeutics and neutrophils or endothelium in living mice. In the future, it is needed to develop new imaging systems and novel imaging contrast agents to better understand molecular mechanisms of tissue processing of nanotherapeutics in vivo.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Intravital Microscopy (IVM), Inflammation, Neutrophils and Endothelium.