1. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lianyungang Clinical College, Jiangsu University, Lianyungang 222006, Jiangsu, P.R. China.
2. Directorate of University Health Services, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast CC0959347, Central Region, Ghana.
3. The People's Hospital of Danyang, Affiliated Danyang Hospital of Nantong University, Zhenjiang 212300, Jiangsu, P.R. China.
4. Department of Optometry and Vision Science, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast CC0959347, Central Region, Ghana.
5. Department of Pathology, Nanjing Jiangning Hospital, Nanjing 211100, Jiangsu, P.R. China.
†The first two authors contributed equally to this work.
Regulated cell death (RCD) is considered a critical pathway in cancer therapy, contributing to eliminating cancer cells and influencing treatment outcomes. The application of RCD in cancer treatment is marked by its potential in targeted therapy and immunotherapy. As a type of RCD, PANoptosis has emerged as a unique form of programmed cell death (PCD) characterized by features of pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis but cannot be fully explained by any of these pathways alone. It is regulated by a multi-protein complex called the PANoptosome. As a relatively new concept first described in 2019, PANoptosis has been shown to play a role in many diseases, including cancer, infection, and inflammation. This study reviews the application of PCD in cancer, particularly the emergence and implication of PANoptosis in developing therapeutic strategies for cancer. Studies have shown that the characterization of PANoptosis patterns in cancer can predict survival and response to immunotherapy and chemotherapy, highlighting the potential for PANoptosis to be used as a therapeutic target in cancer treatment. It also plays a role in limiting the spread of cancer cells. PANoptosis allows for the elimination of cancer cells by multiple cell death pathways and has the potential to address various challenges in cancer treatment, including drug resistance and immune evasion. Moreover, active investigation of the mechanisms and potential therapeutic agents that can induce PANoptosis in cancer cells is likely to yield effective cancer treatments and improve patient outcomes. Research on PANoptosis is still ongoing, but it is a rapidly evolving field with the potential to lead to new treatments for various diseases, including cancer.
Keywords: PANoptosis, cancer, regulated cell death, therapy, immunity