Theranostics 2013; 3(9):719-728. doi:10.7150/thno.5010

Research Paper

Bioengineering Silicon Quantum Dot Theranostics using a Network Analysis of Metabolomic and Proteomic Data in Cardiac Ischemia

Folarin Erogbogbo1,2, Jasmine May2, Mark Swihart2, Paras N. Prasad2, Katie Smart3, Seif El Jack4, Dariusz Korcyk5, Mark Webster6, Ralph Stewart6, Irene Zeng7, Mia Jullig8, Katherine Bakeev9, Michelle Jamieson10, Nikolas Kasabov10, Banu Gopalan11, Linda Liang10, Raphael Hu10, Stefan Schliebs10, Silas Villas-Boas8, Patrick Gladding 4✉

1. San Jose State University, California.
2. University at Buffalo, New York.
3. Lanzatech, Auckland.
4. North Shore Hospital, Auckland.
5. Princess Alexandria hospital, Brisbane.
6. Green Lane Cardiovascular Service, Auckland.
7. CCRep, Middlemore hospital, Auckland.
8. School of Biological Science, Auckland.
9. CAMO Software, New Jersey.
10. KEDRI, Auckland University of Technology.
11. Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) License. See for full terms and conditions.
Erogbogbo F, May J, Swihart M, Prasad PN, Smart K, Jack SE, Korcyk D, Webster M, Stewart R, Zeng I, Jullig M, Bakeev K, Jamieson M, Kasabov N, Gopalan B, Liang L, Hu R, Schliebs S, Villas-Boas S, Gladding P. Bioengineering Silicon Quantum Dot Theranostics using a Network Analysis of Metabolomic and Proteomic Data in Cardiac Ischemia. Theranostics 2013; 3(9):719-728. doi:10.7150/thno.5010. Available from

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Metabolomic profiling is ideally suited for the analysis of cardiac metabolism in healthy and diseased states. Here, we show that systematic discovery of biomarkers of ischemic preconditioning using metabolomics can be translated to potential nanotheranostics. Thirty-three patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after myocardial infarction. Blood was sampled from catheters in the coronary sinus, aorta and femoral vein before coronary occlusion and 20 minutes after one minute of coronary occlusion. Plasma was analysed using GC-MS metabolomics and iTRAQ LC-MS/MS proteomics. Proteins and metabolites were mapped into the Metacore network database (GeneGo, MI, USA) to establish functional relevance. Expression of 13 proteins was significantly different (p<0.05) as a result of PCI. Included amongst these was CD44, a cell surface marker of reperfusion injury. Thirty-eight metabolites were identified using a targeted approach. Using PCA, 42% of their variance was accounted for by 21 metabolites. Multiple metabolic pathways and potential biomarkers of cardiac ischemia, reperfusion and preconditioning were identified. CD44, a marker of reperfusion injury, and myristic acid, a potential preconditioning agent, were incorporated into a nanotheranostic that may be useful for cardiovascular applications. Integrating biomarker discovery techniques into rationally designed nanoconstructs may lead to improvements in disease-specific diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: metabolomics, silicon quantum dots, theranostics, cardiac ischemia, myocardial infarction.