Theranostics 2018; 8(15):4238-4246. doi:10.7150/thno.24387 This issue


Personalized cancer neoantigen vaccines come of age

Yanhong Chu#, Qin Liu#, Jia Wei, Baorui Liu

The Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University & Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
#These authors contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY-NC) license ( See for full terms and conditions.
Chu Y, Liu Q, Wei J, Liu B. Personalized cancer neoantigen vaccines come of age. Theranostics 2018; 8(15):4238-4246. doi:10.7150/thno.24387. Available from

File import instruction


Graphic abstract

Cancer vaccines have encountered their ideal personalized partner along with evidence for great breakthroughs in the identification and synthesis of neoantigens. Individual cancer neoantigen vaccines are capable of eliciting robust T-cell responses and have been demonstrated to achieve striking clinical efficacy due to their high immunogenicity and central thymic tolerance escape of neoantigens. Two recent phase I clinical trials have provided support for the hypothesis and have heralded a nascent era of personalized vaccines in the field of immunotherapy. This review aims to address the identification of neoepitopes and describes advances made in personalized vaccines. In addition, this review discusses the challenges related to the exploitation of vaccine therapy, and provides potential thoughts for the improvement of vaccine design and applications.

Keywords: Neoantigen, vaccine, immunotherapy, T-cell response