Theranostics 2019; 9(11):3122-3133. doi:10.7150/thno.31918 This issue


Bioengineering of Metal-organic Frameworks for Nanomedicine

Yuan Liu1, Yanli Zhao2✉, Xiaoyuan Chen1✉

1. Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, United States
2. Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637371, Singapore

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Liu Y, Zhao Y, Chen X. Bioengineering of Metal-organic Frameworks for Nanomedicine. Theranostics 2019; 9(11):3122-3133. doi:10.7150/thno.31918. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Controlled structure, tunable porosity, and readily chemical functionalizability make metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) a powerful biomedical tool. Nanoscale MOF particles have been increasingly studied as drug carriers, bioimaging agents, and therapeutic agents due to their excellent physiochemical properties. In this review, we start with MOF as a nanocarrier for drug delivery, covering therapeutic MOF agents followed by a comprehensive discussion of surface bioengineering of MOF for improved biostability, biocompatibility, and targeted delivery. Finally, we detail the challenges and prospects of the future of MOF research for biomedical applications.

Keywords: Metal-organic frameworks, drug delivery, photodynamic therapy, surface engineering