1. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Key Laboratory of Neural and Vascular Biology, China Administration of Education, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.
2. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang, China.
3. Central Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University, Baoding, China.
4. Department of Endocrine, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.
5. Department of Science and Technology, The second hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.
Objective: Abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are essential for vascular remodeling. Natural compounds with diterpene chinone or phenolic acid structure from Salvia miltiorrhiza, an eminent medicinal herb widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases in China, can effectively attenuate vascular remodeling induced by vascular injury. However, it remains unknown whether Salvia miltiorrhiza-derived miRNAs can protect VSMCs from injury by environmental stimuli. Here, we explored the role and underlying mechanisms of Salvia miltiorrhiza-derived Sal-miR-1 and 3 in the regulation of VSMC migration and monocyte adhesion to VSMCs induced by thrombin.
Methods: A mouse model for intimal hyperplasia was established by the ligation of carotid artery and the injured carotid arteries were in situ-transfected with Sal-miR-1 and 3 using F-127 pluronic gel. The vascular protective effects of Sal-miR-1 and 3 were assessed via analysis of intimal hyperplasia with pathological morphology. VSMC migration and adhesion were analyzed by the wound healing, transwell membrane assays, and time-lapse imaging experiment. Using loss- and gain-of-function approaches, Sal-miR-1 and 3 regulation of OTUD7B/KLF4/NMHC IIA axis was investigated by using luciferase assay, co-immunoprecipitation, chromatin immunoprecipitation, western blotting, etc.
Results: Salvia miltiorrhiza-derived Sal-miR-1 and 3 can enter the mouse body after intragastric administration, and significantly suppress intimal hyperplasia induced by carotid artery ligation. In cultured VSMCs, these two miRNAs inhibit thrombin-induced the migration of VSMCs and monocyte adhesion to VSMCs. Mechanistically, Sal-miR-1 and 3 abrogate OTUD7B upregulation by thrombin via binding to the different sites of the OTUD7B 3'UTR. Most importantly, OTUD7B downregulation by Sal-miR-1 and 3 attenuates KLF4 protein levels via decreasing its deubiquitylation, whereas decreased KLF4 relieves its repression of transcription of NMHC IIA gene and thus increases NMHC IIA expression levels. Further, increased NMHC IIA represses VSMC migration and monocyte adhesion to VSMCs via maintaining the contractile phenotype of VSMCs.
Conclusions: Our studies not only found the novel bioactive components from Salvia miltiorrhiza but also clarified the molecular mechanism underlying Sal-miR-1 and 3 inhibition of VSMC migration and monocyte adhesion to VSMCs. These results add important knowledge to the pharmacological actions and bioactive components of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Sal-miR-1 and 3-regulated OTUD7B/KLF4/NMHC IIA axis may represent a therapeutic target for vascular remodeling.
Keywords: plant-derived miRNAs, VSMC, OTUD7B, KLF4, NMHC IIA