Theranostics 2021; 11(15):7450-7470. doi:10.7150/thno.60277

Research Paper

Inhibition of SENP6 restrains cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating Annexin-A1 nuclear translocation-associated neuronal apoptosis

Qian Xia1, Meng Mao2, Zhen Zeng2, Zhenzhao Luo3, Yin Zhao4, Jing Shi2, Xing Li1✉

1. Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei Province, China.
2. Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei Province, China.
3. Department of Medical Laboratory, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei Province, China.
4. Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei Province, China.

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Citation:
Xia Q, Mao M, Zeng Z, Luo Z, Zhao Y, Shi J, Li X. Inhibition of SENP6 restrains cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating Annexin-A1 nuclear translocation-associated neuronal apoptosis. Theranostics 2021; 11(15):7450-7470. doi:10.7150/thno.60277. Available from https://www.thno.org/v11p7450.htm

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Abstract

Rationale: Annexin-A1 (ANXA1) has previously been proposed to play a crucial role in neuronal apoptosis during ischemic stroke injury. Our recent study demonstrated that ANXA1 was modified by SUMOylation, and that this modification was greatly weakened after cerebral ischemia, but its effect on neuronal death and the underlying mechanism have not been fully elucidated.

Methods: Mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion were established as the animal model and primary cultured neurons treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion was established as the cell model of ischemic stroke. The Ni2+-NTA agarose affinity pull-down assay was carried out to determine the SUMOylation level of ANXA1. Co-immunoprecipitation assays was utilized to explore the protein interaction. Immunoblot analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, Luciferase reporter assay were performed to identify the regulatory mechanism. LDH release and TUNEL staining was performed to investigate the neuronal cytotoxicity and apoptosis, respectively.

Results: In this study, we identified the deSUMOylating enzyme sentrin/SUMO-specific protease 6 (SENP6) as a negative regulator of ANXA1 SUMOylation. Notably, we found that SENP6-mediated deSUMOylation of ANXA1 induced its nuclear translocation and triggered neuronal apoptosis during cerebral ischemic injury. A mechanistic study demonstrated that SENP6-mediated deSUMOylation of ANXA1 promoted TRPM7- and PKC-dependent phosphorylation of ANXA1. Furthermore, blocking the deSUMOylation of ANXA1 mediated by SENP6 inhibited the transcriptional activity of p53, decreased Bid expression, suppressed caspase-3 pathway activation and reduced the apoptosis of primary neurons subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion. More importantly, SENP6 inhibition by overexpression of a SENP6 catalytic mutant in neurons resulted in significant improvement in neurological function in the mouse model of ischemic stroke.

Conclusions: Taken together, the results of this study identified a previously unidentified function of SENP6 in neuronal apoptosis and strongly indicated that SENP6 inhibition may provide therapeutic benefits for cerebral ischemia.

Keywords: SENP6, Annexin-A1, deSUMOylation, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, nuclear translocation, neuronal apoptosis