Theranostics 2013; 3(11):816-830. doi:10.7150/thno.6989
Integrin αvβ3-Targeted Radiotracer 99mTc-3P-RGD2 Useful for Noninvasive Monitoring of Breast Tumor Response to Antiangiogenic Linifanib Therapy but not Anti-Integrin αvβ3 RGD2 Therapy
1. School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, IN 47907, USA.
2. Department of Nuclear Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 100029, China.
Ji S, Zheng Y, Shao G, Zhou Y, Liu S. Integrin αvβ3-Targeted Radiotracer 99mTc-3P-RGD2 Useful for Noninvasive Monitoring of Breast Tumor Response to Antiangiogenic Linifanib Therapy but not Anti-Integrin αvβ3 RGD2 Therapy. Theranostics 2013; 3(11):816-830. doi:10.7150/thno.6989. Available from http://www.thno.org/v03p0816.htm
Purpose: 99mTc-3P-RGD2 is a 99mTc-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptide that binds to integrin αvβ3 with high affinity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility of 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT/CT (single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) as a molecular imaging tool for noninvasive monitoring breast tumor early response to antiangiogenesis therapy with linifanib, and to illustrate its limitations in monitoring the efficacy of anti-αvβ3 treatment.
Methods: To support SPECT/CT imaging, biodistribution and therapy studies, the xenografted breast cancer model was established by subcutaneous injection of 5 × 106 MDA-MB-435 cells into the fat pad of each athymic nude mouse. Linifanib (ABT-869) was used as antiangiogenesis agent. The tumor volume was 180 ± 90 mm3 on the day (-1 day) before baseline SPECT/CT. Each animal was treated twice daily with vehicle or 12.5 mg/kg linifanib. Longitudinal 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT/CT imaging was performed on days -1, 1, 4 and 11. Tumors were harvested at each time point for pathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Tumor uptake of 99mTc-3P-RGD2 was calculated from SPECT/CT quantification. When cyclic peptide E[c(RGDfK)]2 (RGD2) was used as the anti-αvβ3 agent, SPECT/CT images were obtained only at 7 and 21 days after last RGD2 dose.
Results: The tumor uptake of 99mTc-3P-RGD2 from SPECT/CT quantification was almost identical to that from biodistribution. There was a dramatic reduction in both %ID and %ID/cm3 tumor uptake of 99mTc-3P-RGD2 during the first 24 hours of linifanib therapy. The therapeutic effect of linifanib was on both tumor cells and vasculature, as determined by IHC analysis of integrin αvβ3 and CD31. Changes in tumor vasculature were further confirmed by pathological H&E analysis of tumor tissues. While its %ID tumor uptake increased steadily in vehicle-treated group, the %ID tumor uptake of 99mTc-3P-RGD2 decreased in linifanib-treated group slowly over the 11-day study period. The degree of tumor response to linifanib therapy correlated well to the integrin αvβ3 expression levels before linifanib therapy.
Conclusion: 99mTc-3P-RGD2 is an excellent radiotracer for monitoring integrin αvβ3 expression during and after linifanib therapy. 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT/CT is an useful molecular imaging tool for patient selection before antiangiogenic and anti-αvβ3 therapy; but it would be difficult to use 99mTc-3P-RGD2 for accurate and noninvasive monitoring of early tumor response to anti-αvβ3 therapy.
Keywords: Linifanib, monitoring antiangiogenic therapy, integrin αvβ3, and 99mTc-3P-RGD2.