Theranostics 2019; 9(25):7556-7565. doi:10.7150/thno.38065 This issue


Current status and future trends of clinical diagnoses via image-based deep learning

Jie Xu1, Kanmin Xue2, Kang Zhang3✉

1. Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Lab, Beijing, China
2. Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia
3. Faculty of Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa, Macau

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Xu J, Xue K, Zhang K. Current status and future trends of clinical diagnoses via image-based deep learning. Theranostics 2019; 9(25):7556-7565. doi:10.7150/thno.38065. Available from

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Graphic abstract

With the recent developments in deep learning technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) has gradually been transformed from cutting-edge technology into practical applications. AI plays an important role in disease diagnosis and treatment, health management, drug research and development, and precision medicine. Interdisciplinary collaborations will be crucial to develop new AI algorithms for medical applications. In this paper, we review the basic workflow for building an AI model, identify publicly available databases of ocular fundus images, and summarize over 60 papers contributing to the field of AI development.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, deep learning, machine learning, ophthalmology