Theranostics 2019; 9(26):8221-8238. doi:10.7150/thno.37513
CD4+ and CD8a+ PET imaging predicts response to novel PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor: studies of Sym021 in syngeneic mouse cancer models
1. Minerva Imaging, Copenhagen, Denmark
2. Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine & PET and Cluster for Molecular Imaging, Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Denmark
3. Symphogen A/S, Ballerup, Denmark
Kristensen LK, Fröhlich C, Christensen C, Melander MC, Poulsen TT, Galler GR, Lantto J, Horak ID, Kragh M, Nielsen CH, Kjaer A. CD4+ and CD8a+ PET imaging predicts response to novel PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor: studies of Sym021 in syngeneic mouse cancer models. Theranostics 2019; 9(26):8221-8238. doi:10.7150/thno.37513. Available from http://www.thno.org/v09p8221.htm
Predicting the outcome of immunotherapy is essential for efficient treatment. The recent clinical success of immunotherapy is increasingly changing the paradigm of cancer treatment. Accordingly, the development of immune-based agents is accelerating and the number of agents in the global immuno-oncology pipeline has grown 60-70% over the past year. However, despite remarkable clinical efficacy in some patients, only few achieve a lasting clinical response. Treatment failure can be attributed to poorly immunogenic tumors that do not attract tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Therefore, we developed positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers for non-invasive detection of CD4+ and CD8a+ TILs in syngeneic mouse tumor models for preclinical studies.
Methods: Seven syngeneic mouse tumor models (B16F10, P815, CT26, MC38, Renca, 4T1, Sa1N) were quantified for CD4+ and CD8a+ TILs using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), as well as for tumor growth response to Sym021, a humanized PD-1 antibody cross-reactive with mouse PD-1. Radiotracers were generated from F(ab)'2 fragments of rat-anti-mouse CD4 and CD8a antibodies conjugated to the p-SCN-Bn-Desferrioxamine (SCN-Bn-DFO) chelator and radiolabeled with Zirconium-89 (89Zr-DFO-CD4/89Zr-DFO-CD8a). Tracers were optimized for in vivo PET/CT imaging in CT26 tumor-bearing mice and specificity was evaluated by depletion studies and isotype control imaging. 89Zr-DFO-CD4 and 89Zr-DFO-CD8a PET/CT imaging was conducted in the panel of syngeneic mouse models prior to immunotherapy with Sym021.
Results: Syngeneic tumor models were characterized as “hot” or “cold” according to number of TILs determined by flow cytometry and IHC. 89Zr-DFO-CD4 and 89Zr-DFO-CD8a were successfully generated with a radiochemical purity >99% and immunoreactivity >85%. The optimal imaging time-point was 24 hours post-injection of ~1 MBq tracer with 30 µg non-labeled co-dose. Reduced tumor and spleen uptake of 89Zr-DFO-CD8a was observed in CD8a+ depleted mice and the uptake was comparable with that of isotype control (89Zr-DFO-IgG2b) confirming specificity. PET imaging in syngeneic tumor models revealed a varying maximum tumor-to-heart ratio of 89Zr-DFO-CD4 and 89Zr-DFO-CD8a across tumor types and in-between subjects that correlated with individual response to Sym021 at day 10 relative to start of therapy (p=0.0002 and p=0.0354, respectively). The maximum 89Zr-DFO-CD4 tumor-to-heart ratio could be used to stratify mice according to Sym021 therapy response and overall survival was improved in mice with a 89Zr-DFO-CD4 ratio >9 (p=0.0018).
Conclusion: We developed 89Zr-DFO-CD4 and 89Zr-DFO-CD8a PET radiotracers for specific detection and whole-body assessment of CD4+ and CD8a+ status. These radiotracers can be used to phenotype preclinical syngeneic mouse tumor models and to predict response to an immune checkpoint inhibitor. We foresee development of such non-invasive in vivo biomarkers for prediction and evaluation of clinical efficacy of immunotherapeutic agents, such as Sym021.
Keywords: Molecular imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), immune cell imaging, immunotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibition, PD-1, lymphocytes, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, T-cells, CD4, CD8.