Theranostics 2021; 11(12):6033-6043. doi:10.7150/thno.48868 This issue

Research Paper

Genetic engineering cellular vesicles expressing CD64 as checkpoint antibody carrier for cancer immunotherapy

Liyan Li1*, Qianwei Miao4*, Fanqiang Meng1*, Baoqi Li1, Tianyuan Xue1, Tianliang Fang1, Zhirang Zhang1, Jinxie Zhang3, Xinyu Ye4, Yang Kang5, Xingding Zhang1, Qian Chen6, Xin Liang2,7✉, Hongbo Chen3✉, Xudong Zhang1✉

1. Department of Pharmacology, Molecular Cancer Research Center, School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou/Shenzhen, China.
2. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Tissue Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan 523808, China.
3. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, P.R. China.
4. School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. China.
5. The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, 518107, China.
6. Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, 215325, P.R. China.
7. Center for Experimental Medicine (CEM), University of Chinese Academy of Sciences-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen 518000, P. R. China.
* These authors contributed equally to this work.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( See for full terms and conditions.
Li L, Miao Q, Meng F, Li B, Xue T, Fang T, Zhang Z, Zhang J, Ye X, Kang Y, Zhang X, Chen Q, Liang X, Chen H, Zhang X. Genetic engineering cellular vesicles expressing CD64 as checkpoint antibody carrier for cancer immunotherapy. Theranostics 2021; 11(12):6033-6043. doi:10.7150/thno.48868. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Immune checkpoint blockade therapies, especially those targeting the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have achieved impressive clinical responses in multiple types of cancers. To optimize the therapeutic effect of the checkpoint antibodies, many strategies including targeting delivery, controlled release, and cellular synthesis have been developed. However, within these strategies, antibodies were attached to drug carriers by chemical bonding, which may affect the steric configuration and function of the antibodies. Herein, we prepared cluster of differentiation 64 (CD64), a natural catcher of the fragment crystalline (Fc) of monomeric immunoglobulin G (IgG), and over-expressed it on the cell membrane nanovesicles (NVs) as PD-L1 antibody delivery vehicle (CD64-NVs-aPD-L1), which was employed to disrupt the PD-1/PD-L1 immunosuppressive signal axis for boosting T cell dependent tumor elimination. Meanwhile, chemical immunomodulatory drug cyclophosphamide (CP) was also encapsulated in the vesicle (CD64-NVs-aPD-L1-CP), to simultaneously restrain the regulatory T cells (Tregs) and invigorate Ki67+CD8+ T cells, then further enhance their anti-tumor ability.

Methods: The cell membrane NVs overexpressing CD64 were incubated with PD-L1 antibody and chemotherapeutic agent CP to prepare CD64-NVs-aPD-L1-CP.

Results: The CD64-NVs-aPD-L1-CP could simultaneously interrupt the immunosuppressive effect of PD-L1 and decrease the inhibition of Tregs, leading to tumor growth suppression and survival time extension.

Conclusion: CD64-NVs are charismatic carriers to achieve both checkpoint blockade and immunomodulatory drugs for combined cancer immunotherapy.

Keywords: Cancer immunotherapy, checkpoint antibody, CD64, Regulatory T cells, Nanovesicle.