Theranostics 2022; 12(5):2383-2405. doi:10.7150/thno.67296 This issue


Recent advances in nanotechnology for eradicating bacterial biofilm

Célia Sahli1, Sergio E. Moya2, John S. Lomas1, Christine Gravier-Pelletier3, Romain Briandet4, Miryana Hémadi1✉

1. Université de Paris, CNRS, ITODYS, F-75013 Paris, France.
2. Centro de Investigación Cooperativa en Biomateriales (CIC BiomaGUNE), 20009 Donostia-San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa, Spain.
3. Université de Paris, CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologiques, F-75006 Paris, France.
4. Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Micalis Institute, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

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Sahli C, Moya SE, Lomas JS, Gravier-Pelletier C, Briandet R, Hémadi M. Recent advances in nanotechnology for eradicating bacterial biofilm. Theranostics 2022; 12(5):2383-2405. doi:10.7150/thno.67296. Available from

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Graphic abstract

Microorganisms grouped together into spatially-organized communities called biofilms, are the cause of dramatic chronic infections in plants, animals and humans. In this review, the characteristics of biofilms and their interactions with antimicrobials are first described. Limitations of antibiotic treatments are discussed, and state-of-the-art alternative approaches based on the use of polymer, lipid, organic, inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles are presented, highlighting recent achievements in the application of nanomaterials to the field of theranostics for the eradication of biofilm. The aim of this review is to present a complete vision of nanobiotechnology-based approaches for eradicating bacterial biofilms and fighting antimicrobial tolerance.

Keywords: biofilms, bacteria, antibiotics, antimicrobials, nanotechnology, nanoparticles, therapy, diagnosis.