1. Beijing Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Basic Research on Prevention and Treatment for Major Diseases, Experimental Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.
2. Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.
3. Yunnan Biovalley Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Kunming 650503, China.
4. Robot Intelligent Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Experimental Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences & MEGAROBO, Beijing 100700, China.
Drug evaluation has always been an important area of research in the pharmaceutical industry. However, animal welfare protection and other shortcomings of traditional drug development models pose obstacles and challenges to drug evaluation. Organ-on-a-chip (OoC) technology, which simulates human organs on a chip of the physiological environment and functionality, and with high fidelity reproduction organ-level of physiology or pathophysiology, exhibits great promise for innovating the drug development pipeline. Meanwhile, the advancement in artificial intelligence (AI) provides more improvements for the design and data processing of OoCs. Here, we review the current progress that has been made to generate OoC platforms, and how human single and multi-OoCs have been used in applications, including drug testing, disease modeling, and personalized medicine. Moreover, we discuss issues facing the field, such as large data processing and reproducibility, and point to the integration of OoCs and AI in data analysis and automation, which is of great benefit in future drug evaluation. Finally, we look forward to the opportunities and challenges faced by the coupling of OoCs and AI. In summary, advancements in OoCs development, and future combinations with AI, will eventually break the current state of drug evaluation.
Keywords: Organ-on-a-chip, Microfluidics, Drug evaluation, Artificial intelligence, In vitro model.