Theranostics 2017; 7(6):1477-1488. doi:10.7150/thno.19099 This issue Cite
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
Solid tumors with poorly perfused regions reveal some of the treatment limitations that restrict drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) has been applied to directly disrupt vessels and release nanodroplets, ADV-generated bubbles (ADV-Bs), and drugs into tumor tissue. In this study, we investigated the in vivo behavior of ADV-Bs stimulated by US, and evaluated the possibility of moving intertissue ADV-Bs into the poorly perfused regions of solid tumors. Intravital imaging revealed intertissue ADV-B formation, movement, and cavitation triggered by US, where the distance of intertissue ADV-B movement was 33-99 µm per pulse. When ADV-Bs were applied to tumor cells, the cell membrane was damaged, increasing cellular permeability or inducing cell death. The poorly perfused regions within solid tumors show enhancement due to ADV-B accumulation after application of US-triggered ADV-B. The intratumoral nanodroplet or ADV-B distribution around the poorly perfused regions with tumor necrosis or hypoxia were demonstrated by histological assessment. ADV-B formation, movement and cavitation could induce cell membrane damage by mechanical force providing a mechanism to overcome treatment limitations in poorly perfused regions of tumors.
Keywords: nanodroplets, intertissue bubbles, acoustic droplet vaporization, poorly perfused regions, bubble cavitation.