Theranostics 2019; 9(9):2439-2459. doi:10.7150/thno.31017
Desktop-stereolithography 3D printing of a radially oriented extracellular matrix/mesenchymal stem cell exosome bioink for osteochondral defect regeneration
1. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
2. Key Laboratory of Musculoskeletal System Degeneration and Regeneration Translational Research of Zhejiang Province
3. Department of Orthopedics, 5th Affiliated Hospital, Lishui Municipal Central Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, China
*These authors have contributed equally
Chen P, Zheng L, Wang Y, Tao M, Xie Z, Xia C, Gu C, Chen J, Qiu P, Mei S, Ning L, Shi Y, Fang C, Fan S, Lin X. Desktop-stereolithography 3D printing of a radially oriented extracellular matrix/mesenchymal stem cell exosome bioink for osteochondral defect regeneration. Theranostics 2019; 9(9):2439-2459. doi:10.7150/thno.31017. Available from http://www.thno.org/v09p2439.htm
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress damage are hallmarks of osteoarthritis (OA). Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes are important in intercellular mitochondria communication. However, the use of MSC exosomes for regulating mitochondrial function in OA has not been reported. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of MSC exosomes in a three dimensional (3D) printed scaffold for early OA therapeutics.
Methods: We first examined the mitochondria-related proteins in normal and OA human cartilage samples and investigated whether MSC exosomes could enhance mitochondrial biogenesis in vitro. We subsequently designed a bio-scaffold for MSC exosomes delivery and fabricated a 3D printed cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM)/gelatin methacrylate (GelMA)/exosome scaffold with radially oriented channels using desktop-stereolithography technology. Finally, the osteochondral defect repair capacity of the 3D printed scaffold was assessed using a rabbit model.
Results: The ECM/GelMA/exosome scaffold effectively restored chondrocyte mitochondrial dysfunction, enhanced chondrocyte migration, and polarized the synovial macrophage response toward an M2 phenotype. The 3D printed scaffold significantly facilitated the cartilage regeneration in the animal model.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the 3D printed, radially oriented ECM/GelMA/exosome scaffold could be a promising strategy for early OA treatment.
Keywords: 3D printing, cartilage extracellular matrix, exosome, osteochondral defect