1. Department of Interventional & Vascular Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Medical School of Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China.
2. College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China.
3. Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China.
Human organoids-on-chips (OrgOCs) are the synergism of human organoids (HOs) technology and microfluidic organs-on-chips (OOCs). OOCs can mimic extrinsic characteristics of organs, such as environmental clues of living tissue, while HOs are more amenable to biological analysis and genetic manipulation. By spatial cooperation, OrgOCs served as 3D organotypic living models allowing them to recapitulate critical tissue-specific properties and forecast human responses and outcomes. It represents a giant leap forward from the regular 2D cell monolayers and animal models in the improved human ecological niche modeling. In recent years, OrgOCs have offered potential promises for clinical studies and advanced the preclinical-to-clinical translation in medical and industrial fields. In this review, we highlight the cutting-edge achievements in OrgOCs, introduce the key features of OrgOCs architectures, and share the revolutionary applications in basic biology, disease modeling, preclinical assay and precision medicine. Furthermore, we discuss how to combine a wide range of disciplines with OrgOCs and accelerate translational applications, as well as the challenges and opportunities of OrgOCs in biomedical research and applications.
Keywords: organoids-on-chips, organs-on-chips, drug discovery, precision medicine, living organoid biobank