Theranostics 2018; 8(15):4247-4261. doi:10.7150/thno.25131 This issue
1. Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, #1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 121-742, Republic of Korea
2. Biomedical Research Institute & Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Republic of Korea
3. Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
4. Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sogang University, #1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 121-742, Republic of Korea
Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. A number of chemotherapeutic and early diagnosis strategies, including nanomedicine, have been developed to target metastatic tumor cells. However, simultaneous inhibition and imaging of metastasis is yet to be fully achieved.
Methods: To overcome this limitation, we have developed human serum albumin-based nanoparticles (tHSA-NPs) with photoacoustic imaging capability, which target carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6). CEACAM6 is highly expressed in metastatic anoikis-resistant tumor cells.
Results: In vitro, the CEACAM6-targeting tHSA-NPs efficiently targeted CEACAM6-overexpressing metastatic anoikis-resistant tumor cells. In vivo, CEACAM6-targeting tHSA-NPs administered intravenously to BALB/c nude mice efficiently inhibited lung metastasis in circulating anoikis-resistant tumor cells compared to the controls. In addition, anoikis-resistant tumor cells can be successfully detected by photoacoustic imaging, both in vitro and in vivo, using the intrinsic indocyanine green-binding affinity of albumin.
Conclusion: In summary, the CEACAM6-targeting albumin-based nanoparticles allowed the delivery of drugs and photoacoustic imaging to metastatic anoikis-resistant tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Based on the expression of CEACAM6 in a variety of tumors, CEACAM6-targeting nanomedicine might be used to target various types of metastatic tumor cells.
Keywords: metastasis, anoikis resistance, CEACAM6, nanomedicine, photoacoustic imaging