Theranostics 2019; 9(1):179-195. doi:10.7150/thno.29545
OTUB2 stabilizes U2AF2 to promote the Warburg effect and tumorigenesis via the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer
1. State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
2. Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China
* These authors contributed equally to this work.
Li J, Cheng D, Zhu M, Yu H, Pan Z, Liu L, Geng Q, Pan H, Yan M, Yao M. OTUB2 stabilizes U2AF2 to promote the Warburg effect and tumorigenesis via the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer. Theranostics 2019; 9(1):179-195. doi:10.7150/thno.29545. Available from http://www.thno.org/v09p0179.htm
Increasing evidence has confirmed that deubiquitinating enzymes play an important role in lung cancer progression. In the current study, we investigated the expression profile of deubiquitinating enzymes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and identified OTUB2 as an upregulated deubiquitinating enzyme. The role of OTUB2 in NSCLC is unknown.
Methods: Quantitative, real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect OTUB2 and U2AF2 expression in NSCLC tissues. The correlations between OTUB2 and U2AF2 expression and clinicopathologic features were then analyzed. We used In vitro Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) , colony formation , and trans-well invasion assays to investigate the function of OTUB2 and U2AF2 in tumorigenesis. The regulation of glycolysis by OTUB2 and U2AF2 was assessed by determining the extracellular acid ratio, glucose consumption, and lactate production. The mechanism of OTUB2 was explored through co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses. A xenograft model was also used to study the tumorigenesis role of OTUB2 In vivo.
Results: OTUB2 expression was significantly upregulated in primary NSCLC tissues and greatly associated with metastasis, advanced tumor stages, poor survival, and recurrence. In NSCLC cell lines, OTUB2 promoted cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasive activities. Mechanistic investigations showed that OTUB2 stimulated the Warburg effect and induced the activation of the serine/threonine kinase/mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (AKT/mTOR) pathway in different NSCLC cells. More importantly, OTUB2 promoted NSCLC progression, which was largely dependent on the direct binding to and deubiquitination of U2AF2, at least in NSCLC cells. U2AF2 expression was also significantly upregulated in primary NSCLC tissues and dramatically associated with metastasis, advanced tumor stages, poor survival, and recurrence. Importantly, a positive correlation between the protein expression of OTUB2 and U2AF2 in NSCLC tissues was found. In vivo experiments indicated that OTUB2 promoted xenograft tumor growth of NSCLC cell. In addition, our results suggest that high expression of OTUB2, U2AF2 and PGK1 is significantly associated with worse prognosis in NSCLC patients.
Conclusion: Taken together, the present study provides the first evidence that OTUB2 acts as a pivotal driver in NSCLC tumorigenesis by stabilizing U2AF2 and activating the AKT/mTOR pathway and the Warburg effect. It may serve as a new potential prognostic indicator and therapeutic target in NSCLC.
Keywords: deubiquitinating enzyme, OTUB2, NSCLC, Warburg effect, U2AF2