Theranostics 2023; 13(9):2993-3020. doi:10.7150/thno.81845 This issue Cite
1. Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, P. R. China.
2. Molecular Science and Biomedicine Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, P. R. China.
† Yingshu Guo and Dan Jing contributed equally to this work.
Micro/nanomotors are containers that pass through liquid media and carry cargo. Because they are tiny, micro/nanomotors exhibit excellent potential for biosensing and disease treatment applications. However, their size also makes overcoming random Brownian forces very challenging for micro/nanomotors moving on targets. Additionally, to achieve desired practical applications, the expensive materials, short lifetimes, poor biocompatibility, complex preparation methods, and side effects of micro/nanomotors must be addressed, and potential adverse effects must be evaluated both in vivo and in practical applications. This has led to the continuous development of key materials for driving micro/nanomotors. In this work, we review the working principles of micro/nanomotors. Metallic and nonmetallic nanocomplexes, enzymes, and living cells are explored as key materials for driving micro/nanomotors. We also consider the effects of exogenous stimulations and endogenous substance conditions on micro/nanomotor motions. The discussion focuses on micro/nanomotor applications in biosensing, treating cancer and gynecological diseases, and assisted fertilization. By addressing micro/nanomotor shortcomings, we propose directions for further developing and applying micro/nanomotors.
Keywords: micro/nanomotor, biosensing, disease treatment, targeted movement